The human history of Georgia begins well before the founding of the colony, with Native American cultures that date back to the Paleoindian Period at the end of the Ice Age, nearly 13,000 years ago. These unique environmental zones drew a variety of native peoples to the region, leading to a greater diversity of early Indian cultures than was found elsewhere in the Southeast.
The Clovis culture, identified by its unique projectile points, is the earliest documented group to have lived in present-day Georgia. The numerous varieties of pottery found in Georgia today testify to this diversity.explorers and settlers, the Mississippian cultures began to decline, and remnants of various chiefdoms coalesced to form larger societies, including those of the Creeks and Cherokees, both of which played significant roles in the colonial history of Georgia.
Georgia also had the distinction of being the only southern state challenged over Indian sovereignty in a U. Atlanta, originally named Terminus, was founded in 1837 as the end of the rail system's line and subsequently grew into one of the South's principal cities.
By the 1850s the state claimed more miles of rail lines than did any of its southern neighbors, positioning Georgia as an important home front during the Civil War (1861-65)."Empire State of the South," as an increasingly industrialized Georgia had come to be known, was the second-largest state in area east of the Mississippi River.
As a result, a series of fortifications was built along the coast, and on several occasions, most notably the Battle of Bloody Marsh on St.